Textile printing belongs to the printing and dyeing industry. It can learn or train traditional and modern printing techniques in our universities and colleges. In particular, in the market economy, it is necessary to meet the requirements of production practice, but also to consider social and economic benefits. Therefore, every aspect of printing has different requirements and standards. It is not easy to fully grasp textile printing technology because it not only requires technology, but also relates to market information, artistic creation, and economic benefits.
In recent years, the production and sales of textiles have changed considerably. The development of printing in various regions is extremely uneven. According to statistics, only a few companies in 31 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions across the country have developed better. According to national statistics, according to the export volume and total production, the top 6 in the first half of 2004 were Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Guangdong, Shandong, Fujian, and Hebei. The production, economic benefits, and export (export) of textile printing are not satisfactory, especially the quality of products, which makes people think deeply.
The current situation of screen printing is similar to the general environment, but it has its own uniqueness and it has a place in the printing process of export clothing. However, it completely relies on patterns provided by foreign companies and certain major raw materials, and under the mutual control of exporters and garment factories, printing companies rarely have the initiative, so they face some specific problems. This article makes a brief analysis and proposes some solutions.
Basic conditions for printing enterprises
In the era of planned economy, China's printing enterprises were divided into large-scale cotton printing and dyeing enterprises and medium-sized enterprises such as silk, linen, and towels. They started late in knitting, clothing, tourist souvenirs, and kitchen and dining supplies, and they were small in size. Some individual printing companies and joint venture garment printing companies. However, regardless of the type of company and its size, it has its own professional requirements and basic conditions.
l, a company must first clear what products to produce? How much is the scale? Is it domestic or export? Raw materials (fabric) through what channels to supply, otherwise there will often be "no rice" or become a "universal enterprise." Of course, more varieties of companies should be built within the scope of similar products.
2. The company's major equipment must be matched and should not be missed. At present, some printing companies use coating processes, and generally lack high-temperature drying equipment. This is undesirable. As for the types of equipment, they will each be able to do so.
3, the choice of process technology and dyeing materials should be appropriate. The requirements for post-processing are determined by taking suitable process conditions for the product and selecting the desired dye, such as dyes or pigments (coatings).
4, the final product molding, simply speaking, sewing processing. Screen printing is not a product. It is the appearance of its artistic patterns and colors on a product, so post-molding is also important.
5, environmental issues must be treated with caution, although the amount of sewage printing paint less, but it can not be discharged without treatment. In addition, the concentration of harmful gases to the human body should also be monitored and controlled.
6, strict implementation of standards. Operators can identify and understand the â€œoriginalâ€ materials used in production, reject inferior materials, and at the same time, strictly control the quality of their own products. Recently, the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine (AQSIQ) issued a mandatory textile safety standard GB18401, most of which relates to printing.
7, the most critical is the human talent and quality. Talent is the pillar of the company, including marketers and product design makers.
Second, the problems faced by textile printing
The development of China's textile industry is a wave-like process, and so is the printing industry. Before the 1990s, it was a period of rising development. Large and medium-sized printing and dyeing enterprises spread all over the country. There were only 5 medium-sized printing and dyeing enterprises in Beijing alone. From the beginning of the 1990s, the state adjusted the industrial structure and the textile industry improved product quality and grades. However, it has not achieved the expected results. The large and medium-sized printing and dyeing companies in most of the province in Kenting have either converted or stopped production. Beijing is no exception. However, China is a big country of textile enterprises. Its products not only supply the lives of more than a billion people, but also are the pillars of China's export products, of which printing products and clothing printing account for a considerable proportion. More than a decade later, there have been relatively big changes: first, the distribution areas of printing and dyeing enterprises have been concentrated in the southeast coastal areas; the nature of sub-enterprises has changed more obviously, and joint-stock companies, joint ventures, and civil society companies have replaced most of the state-owned enterprises. At present, textile printing is faced with specific problems both in the whole and in parts. It is worth exploring and thinking about.
1. Where is the market for textile printing products? At present, peopleâ€™s psychology is â€œemphasizing external lightâ€, that is, focusing on foreign sales, and the domestic market has less consideration. The clothing or cultural shirts (knitting underwear) processed in the screen printing industry must also rely on foreign trade. To this end, the author believes that the current textile printing market should be adjusted from the macro level, at least to "mutual emphasis both inside and outside" to change, otherwise China's textile printing industry will further shrink.
2. China's textile and apparel exports have a certain status in foreign trade. For decades, it has been China's major export products. Due to the large number of textile enterprises in China, the technological content and design content of their printed products are low, resulting in a reduction in the profit margin of the entire apparel and accessories. Moreover, there are many export of printing and dyeing products at the expense of the local (Chinese) ecological environment. Serious environmental pollution occurs. A large amount of sewage and harmful gases are discharged without treatment, and some developed countries have even transferred the production of printing and dyeing products to China. Come. To this end, people are reminded to develop our printing and dyeing products on the premise of ensuring the ecology.
3. According to the WTO regulations, the textile quota system with a history of 40 years will be abolished from January 1, 2005, which is a good turning point. In 2003, the total investment in the textile industry increased by 80.4%, and in the January-February period of 2004, it increased by 144%. This fully shows that China's exports are showing strong growth. Although China is a large textile country, many countries in the world produce textiles for export. After cancelling quotas, they will face excess global processing capacity, further shrinking profit margins, fierce technological competition, and domestic conflicts and difficulties in reform and development. . In particular, industry associations from 46 countries including Germany, the United States, Mexico, France, Spain, Cambodia, Turkey, Sri Lanka and some countries have jointly submitted a request to the WTO to maintain the current restrictions on Chinese local textile exports and postpone three yearsâ€™ cancellation. Quota restrictions and the formation of the Global Alliance for Fair Trade in Textiles and Apparel to deal with textiles in mainland China, deepening the content of â€œbarriersâ€ and dumping measures, especially on â€œtechnical barriersâ€ and â€œgreen barriersâ€, which are the result of my textile printing weakness.
4. The technological content is not high and the color and variety are monotonous. This is a major obstacle for the textile printing industry in China. It not only seriously affects the grade and grade of finished products, but also the vast majority of them are low-priced products, which is 1/3 more than that of similar products in the international market. The reason is "talent". Including scientific and technical personnel and color varieties of innovative juice-making personnel and market information collection and feedback personnel.
5. The relevant personnel of the textile printing system in China are lagging behind in terms of concepts, regulations, technologies, information, and knowledge updates. At present, all types of textile printing enterprises and apparel manufacturing enterprises in China will implement the new mandatory national standard GB IB401-2003 "National Basic Safety Technical Specification for Textile Products" for textile enterprises. Domestic sales and import and export of textiles will be implemented in accordance with the new standards. GB18401-2003 is equivalent to foreign technical regulations and every production or export textile company must strictly implement it.
Perhaps some companies are still unaware of the situation, and they lack comprehensive and accurate understanding of the trade barriers represented by â€œgreen barriersâ€ and related knowledge of eco-textiles, let alone implement relevant measures to prevent problems. Here briefly introduces the GBlg40l-2003 assessment project to guide industry stakeholders to further study and implement the standard. The assessment items specified in GBlg40l-2003 are formaldehyde content, pH value, color fastness (water resistance, perspiration resistance, dry friction resistance, saliva resistance), odor, decomposable aromatic amine dyes. GB lg40l-2003 classifies products into three categories, namely, category A (baby and infant supplies), category B (products that directly contact the skin), and category C (products that do not directly contact the skin). We must take seriously the speculations in order to implement the standard smoothly and strictly.
6. How to form an advantageous industrial chain and improve the competitiveness of our textile printing products has become a key factor in market competition. The system of division of the product, the division of industries, and the disconnection of upstream and downstream products from the planned economy must change this reality. We believe that the industrial chain should intensify the development of new fiber, yarn, and fabric varieties of upstream products, and strengthen cooperation with downstream product apparel and supporting home textile companies to take advantage of the art and color of printed products and further work across industries. The relationship between professional associations, to jointly develop or enhance the brand name effect of textile products. If you only work in certain areas, it is difficult to achieve good results in market competition. Therefore, textile printing is in the midstream status. The situation is not optimistic, and it is still necessary to improve its own quality. Looking back at history and opening up the future, we will combine the spirit of collaboration in the era of planned economy with the current competition mechanism in the market economy to create a textile all-round group with Chinese characteristics.
Third, some suggestions
Since the mid-50s of the last century, silk screen printing has been used in mass production of silk fabrics, and there have been major developments and changes. Although the proportion of textile screen printing in total printing output is not high, the output of automatic flat screen printing machines is less than 15%, and the output of manual platen or manual printing stations is less than 2%, but it is widely distributed. , It can be said that all daily textiles have more or less traces of screen printing. Although the number of medium-sized screen printing companies has decreased in recent years, the number of group-owned and self-employed screen printing companies has increased significantly, especially in clothing (cultural shirts, sportswear, etc.), flags (advertising, banners), tourist souvenirs, etc. To highlight. Because these companies break the boundaries of the industry, no specific department or number of companies can make statistics. However, its development prospects are still relatively broad. The author proposes the following suggestions for printing problems for reference.
1, the size of the company is different, but can not lack or neglect the key points of textile printing enterprises. Therefore, the survival of enterprises, the development of printed products, we must first improve the basic points, and one by one to achieve, or can not talk about development.
2. Work hard on developing varieties and promote small-scale information chain of industrial chain and marketing integration. At present, the variety of silk screen printing is relatively monotonous, and some companies rely on foreign trade garment printing, and there are very few varieties specially designed for the domestic market. The author believes that the domestic market is the direction of development, but the positioning of varieties is close to the ear, must play the role of the creative designer's market information, develop new varieties, and then gradually promote after repeated argumentation.
3, get rid of the traditional concept, part of the new way to expand is a non-textile printing screen printing companies mixed. Therefore, it is imperative to use new thinking to develop new products. We must consider updating the training materials, provide guidance to professional staff and instill knowledge of new technologies for existing practitioners, and lay a solid foundation for the development of new products with high technological platforms.
At present, except for silk fabrics, it is almost a homogeneous coating process. Of course, the characteristics and advantages of the coating process are half of the textile printing. The Dyeing and Finishing Special Committee of the China Textile Engineering Society has held two international seminars specifically for Xuzhou printing technology. It can be seen that the superiority of the coating printing process is extraordinary. However, high-end textile printing products still need to be produced using dye technology, such as
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